The operational definition of “academic language” is language used in schools in the service of learning. Based on the research conducted to develop ELTiS, the concept of “academic language” encompasses the following:

- School Vocabulary – words and phrases used for school-related activities.
- School Management Language – the instructions that teachers and other school personnel give to students to direct their behavior.
- Content Management Language – the general academic language used to discuss the content of academic tasks and classes (e.g.,
*discuss, explain, compare and contrast*). - Subject-Specific Language – the specific academic language used to express ideas in content areas (e.g.,
*foreshadowing, migration, trapezoid, molecule*). - Academic Language Skills – the language skills that underlie academic tasks or activities (e.g.,
*explaining, differentiating facts and opinions*).

*Part 2: Comprehend Mathematical Language*are played once. Part 2 is played twice.

*Part 1: Follow Classroom Directions*

This part has four questions. It measures the students’ ability to understand teacher directions. The directions contain school management language and involve from one to three steps. For each test question, the students see a picture and hear a teacher giving three different directions. The students then choose the direction that the students in the picture have followed. The maximum length of the directions is 30 words.

*Part 2: Comprehend Mathematical Language*

This part has four questions. It measures the students’ ability to understand word problems and common math vocabulary. For each question, the speaker on the CD describes a word problem and explains how to solve it. After hearing the word problem and its solution twice, the students choose a mathematical expression that corresponds to the solution. It is worth emphasizing that the focus of this task is on language rather than mathematics, and this is why the solution to the word problem is explained in the item. The students just need to make the connection between the explanation of the solution in English and the mathematical notation for it. The word problems themselves are involving basic arithmetic operations, fractions, and percentages.

*Part 3: Understand Classroom Dialogue*

This part has three dialogues, each with three comprehension questions. The questions focus on the students’ ability to understand the gist and details of classroom-like dialogue. The dialogues may be between a teacher and a student or between two students.

*Part 4: Listen and Respond to Academic Lectures*

This part has two lecture-type presentations and seven questions. The questions focus on the students’ ability to understand the gist and details of lecture-type presentations from a range of content areas.

*Part 1: Demonstrate Vocabulary Knowledge*

This part has seven sentences, each with a missing word. It measures the students’ knowledge of general and content-specific academic vocabulary. The students use contextual clues in each sentence to choose the appropriate word.

*Part 2: Read a Graph*

This part has four comprehension questions about a graph or a table. It measures the students’ ability to understand information presented in graph or table form. The questions focus on the main idea and details such as facts, comparisons, and sequence.

*Part 3: Read and Respond to Academic Texts*